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of the source language message, first in terms of meaning, and secondly in terms of style.

(3) 翻译是科学(science),是艺术(art),是技能(craft)

翻译是科学,因为它涉及思维和语言,反应了保存与认识,主体与客体的关系,这种关系可用受一定规律支配的语言加以描述,翻译有科学规律可循,所以是科学。translation is a kind of science because it has a whole set of rules governing it and certain objective laws to go by in the process of translating just as other sciences do.

翻译是艺术,因为翻译是译者对原文再创造的过程。译者不可避免地带有自己的主观色彩,有他自己的独创性。translation is also an art, a bilingual art. Like painting, translation enables us to reproduce the fine thought of somebody, not in colors, but in words, in words of a different language.

翻译是技能,译者需采用增词,减词,切分,转换等办法。besides, it’s also a craft, because in translation, certain skills and technique are needed in order to attain clearness of style, and fluency in language.

6. The Process of Translation

A. Preparation: basic knowledge about both languages as well as the background knowledge; basic skills in translation are necessary;

B. Comprehension: understanding accurately the meaning of the source language; How?

C. Expression/Representation: try to express the meaning in idiomatic Chinese;

D. Revision /proofreading: check again and again to polish the language.

STEP 1 The Stage of Understanding

The understanding in the process of translation is different from the understanding in our daily reading.

First of all, the aim of the understanding in the process of translation is representing (表达) the content faithfully, so we have to try to understand the text completely, deeply and in detail. Secondly, in the understanding in translation, we are thinking in two languages, and in two ways. So, it’s very complicated.

STEP 2 The Stage of Representation

1.直译(Literal Translation)

Literal Translation means translating according to the surface meaning and keeping the structures of sentences. Literal translation keeps both the content and the form of the original work.

2.意译( Liberal Translation)

Because of the different way of thinking some of the English sentences cannot be translated in the literal way, they can only be translated in the liberal way. In liberal translation the form can be neglected but the content must always be faithful.

3. The Relation between Literal Translation and Liberal Translation

There has been the discussion about literal translation and liberal translation. In fact, they are both necessary in translation. We can’t imagine anyone using only literal translation or liberal translation in their translating

7. History of Translation in China

1)佛经翻译时期,从东汉开始至唐宋,1000余年.The first high tide of translation in China is the translation of The Buddhist Scripture (佛经)。It began at the end of the Han Dynasty, came to flourishing in the dynasties of Sui and Tang, declined in the Song Dynasty. It lasted more than 1000 years .(支谦、道安,鸠摩罗什、真谛、玄奘)

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